Brief Budapest History
Brief Budapest History
It is not a scientific study, just a small overview for those who don’t know Hungary. It can help a lot to understand what you see here if you visit Budapest.
Budapest was inhabited even in the Roman times. At North side of Buda, many ruins can be seen even today.
Roman era Military amphiteatrum in Budapest the area is bigger than the area of the Colosseum in Rome (132 x 108 m). It is located in North Buda between the streets of Nagyszombat – Pacsirtamező – Viador – Szőlő. According to scholares the Romans used this place from the first century. After it was used by the Hungarians as well.
Many interesting traces was discovered for example the Palace of Hadrianus in the Obuda island (we reburied afterwards), when they built the boat factory, or the Ancient bath. The name of the settlement was Aquincum. After the 4 century after Christ the Roman troops has left the area.
The Hungarians comes to the area of Hungary in 895-896 AD.
The Hungarians was nomad people on horses. They come from somewhere in Asia or Eastern Europe according to scholars. They had seven tribes. Arpad was the leader of the Hungarian troops who chose Buda for living. Arpad was buried here in 907. The exact place of Burial is not known, can be in Buda or in the Pilis hills little further.
Budapest had three parts: the plain East side of the Danube – Pest, the ancient ÓBuda at Northwest, and Buda at West. In the past these were three separate cities, and other parts of today’s Budapest was also separate villages or towns.
The Mongols invaded Hungary in 1241-1242.
They killed everybody in Budapest. The Mongols left the area of Hungary, the reason is not known. It is hard to understand the whole thing today. Approximately half (little less) of Hungary’s population was killed. After the Mongol invasion they started to rebuilt the Whole country and built stone Strongholds, before the strongholds was built from Mud. IV Bela started to rebuild the country.
The Turkish invaded Buda between 1541-1686.
The Turkish armies started to invade in the 15th century in the Balkan peninsula. At the beginning the Hungarians were succeded to defeat them by Janos Hunyadi father of King Mathias in 1444 and 1448. After they came again and concur Hungary. They spend 1.5 centuries in Hungary, other Nations was not so succesful, somewhere they only left in the 19th century. The Turks built baths, Mosques and other buildings in Budapest, but at the war against them almost all buildings was destroyed, see below. In the whole area of Hungary four Mosques remained: at Eger, Szigetvar, Érd and Pecs. The most from Turkish architecture remained at Pécs at South Transdanubia. In Budapest Four Turkish baths (Rudas, Veli bej, Kiraly, Rac) and a Burial place (Tomb of Gül Baba) remained, and some traces of Mosque (Tojgun Pasha, Fő u 30-32 South-East elevation of the Temple), and a prayer cabinet in the inner city Temple (Marcius 15 square). In the whole Hungary 30 architectural traces can be found from the 150 year Turkish era.
The Habsburgs helped to expelled the Turks from Budapest in 1686.
In this cruel war almost all the inhabitants of Budapest died, all buildings was destroyed, even the first trials wasn’t successful.
The First Bridge on the Danube (The Chain bridge) was built in 1844.
This was a Chain bridge but not the one you can see on the pictures or in reality. The original bridge was blowed up by the escaping German troops in the Second World War. The bridge was designed by William Thierney Clark, and executed by Adam Clark. The names are similar but the designer was an English the other gentlemen was Scottish. William Thierney Clack made designs of several bridges, but only one was executed, which was chosen by Istvan Szechenyi and Gyorgy Sina. The exact location was also chosen by Mr Clark.
The Hungarian revolution against the Habsburgs was in 1848-1849.
The Hungarians was defeated by the Habsburgs, 13 Hungarian generals was executed in Arad in 1849.
The Austro-Hungarian compromise in 1867.
After it was a constituional Monarchy till the first World War. After has a same kind of document with Croatians.
Buda and Pest was united in 1873.
Formerly these were separate cities. Buda is a hilly place at West side of the Danube, Pest is a plain area in the East side of the Danube.
1st World War in 1914-18.
There was an Economical and political conflict between Germany and the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and between France, and Serbia England and Russia. The Germans got stronger economically and wanted to attack France. The Monarchy wanted to attack Serbia. The Antant with the United states won over Germany and the Monarchy. In this war was where the first time when they used modern weapons.
End of the Austro Hungarian Monarchy. The Germans cannot got more areas. Russian revolution. Hungary lose huge areas in the end of the war. Around half million people died from Hungary and Croatia in the war. Totally more than 15 million people died.
2nd World War in 1939-45.
The escaping Germans exploded all the bridges of Budapest. The allied forces bombing the city as well. 40% of Hungary’s National Wealth was vanished. The siege of Budapest lasted 52 days. 92 000 German and Hungarian soldiers try to defend the city against 176,000 Russian and Rumanian soldiers. For comparison Berlin can defend 14 days, Vienna 6 days against the Russian army.
The Russian Army expelled the German army from Budapest in 1945.
The revolution in Hungary was in 1956.
200,000 Hungarians left the country. The Soviet troops comes to Hungary.